Fish-lighting complementary photovoltaic power station organically combines aquaculture and renewable energy. In this study we aimed to develop a solar photovoltaic that is not confined to land. We used a shade net to simulate photovoltaic panels, and studied the effects of different proportions of photovoltaic panels on water and fish. The results showed that the average light intensity of the unshaded area and the shaded area were 16,661.7 Lux and 2437.0 Lux. The average light intensity of the shaded area was 85.4% lower than that of the unshaded area. The effective range of the shaded area for the light intensity of the water layer was 0 cm~30 cm. The temperature and pH in the water body showed a linear decreasing trend with the increase of the photovoltaic deployment ratio, and the dissolved oxygen showed an inverted “U”-shaped change characteristic, but this effect was limited. When the photovoltaic deployment ratio was 25% to 75%, the dissolved oxygen in the water body increases by an average of 2.37% compared to the unshaded area. The appropriate proportion of photovoltaic deployment did not affect the dissolved oxygen content in the water body. When the photovoltaic deployment ratio reached 75%, the number of algae species and algae biomass was the largest, and the fish production was the highest at 8094.6 kg·acre−1, which is an increase of 166.2 kg·acre−1 compared to the average yield in unshaded areas. Therefore, photovoltaic layout will not affect the growth of fish, and the proportion of 75% is the best layout choice.
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