African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal contagious disease of swine caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV). At present, it is listed as a notifiable disease reported to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and a class one animal disease ruled by Chinese government. ASF has brought significant economic losses to the pig industry since its outbreak in China in August 2018. In this review, we recapitulated the epidemic situation of ASF in China as of July 2020 and analyzed the influencing factors during its transmission. Since the situation facing the prevention, control, and eradication of ASF in China is not optimistic, safe and effective vaccines are urgently needed. In light of the continuous development of ASF vaccines in the world, the current scenarios and evolving trends of ASF vaccines are emphatically analyzed in the latter part of the review. The latest research outcomes showed that attempts on ASF gene-deleted vaccines and virus-vectored vaccines have proven to provide complete homologous protection with promising efficacy. Moreover, gaps and future research directions of ASF vaccine are also discussed.