In this study, a novel nanodroplet cutting fluid (NDCF), consisting of emulsified water and oil nanodroplets, was developed to improve the surface quality of the single-point diamond-turned optical polymers. This developed NDCF was able to penetrate the chip–tool interface, contributing to both cooling and lubricating effects. The performance of NDCF was evaluated from perspectives of the surface irregularity, roughness, and cutting force of the machined groove in a series of taper cutting experiments. Meanwhile, a high-quality optical surface was obtained and the micro-level form error was reduced in the diamond turning of a Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microlens array.
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