Keratinopathic ichthyoses (KI) are a clinically heterogeneous group of keratinization disorders due to mutations in KRT1, KTR10, or KRT2 genes encoding keratins of suprabasal epidermis. Characteristic clinical features include superficial blisters and erosions in infancy and progressive development of hyperkeratosis. Histopathology shows epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. We describe the clinical, histopathological, and molecular findings of a series of 26 Italian patients from 19 unrelated families affected with (i) epidermolytic ichthyosis due to KRT1 or KRT10 mutations (7 and 9 cases, respectively); (ii) KTR10-mutated ichthyosis with confetti (2 cases); (iii) KRT2-mutated superficial epidermolytic ichthyosis (5 cases); and (iv) KRT10-mutated epidermolytic nevus (2 cases). Of note, molecular genetic testing in a third case of extensive epidermolytic nevus revealed a somatic missense mutation (p.Asn186Asp) in the KRT2 gene, detected in DNA from lesional skin at an allelic frequency of 25% and, at very low frequency (1.5%), also in blood. Finally, we report three novel dominant mutations, including a frameshift mutation altering the C-terminal V2 domain of keratin 1 in three familiar cases presenting a mild phenotype. Overall, our findings expand the phenotypic and molecular spectrum of KI and show for the first time that epidermolytic nevus can be due to somatic KRT2 mutation.
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