JCM | Free Full-Text | Utility of Blood Parameters to Detect Complications during Long-Term Follow-Up in Patients with Diabetic Foot Osteomyelitis


The evidence is still unclear regarding the role of blood parameters in detecting complications in patients who suffer from diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO). In this study, the aim was to identify the capacity of different blood parameters in the diagnosis and prediction of the onset of complications. A cross-sectional prospective study was carried out with 116 DFO patients. The following blood parameters were evaluated during 1 year of follow-up: leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), glycemia, glycosylated hemoglobin, C-reactive protein (CRP), alkaline phosphatase, albumin, and creatinine. Complication events were assessed for each participant during the study period. We investigated the association between blood parameter values and the onset of complication events by conducting a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Eighty-five (73.3%) patients developed complications. Regarding blood parameters, higher values of lymphocytes and albumin were predictive factors at the 12-month follow-up once the ulcer had healed. Higher values of ESR had predictive and diagnostic value for the onset of complication events, and higher values of CRP and hyperglycemia were diagnostic factors since they were elevated during the occurrence of an event. In conclusion, after suffering from DFO, the elevation of lymphocytes, ESR, CRP, albumin, and glycemia could be useful in detecting and diagnosing patients who are likely to develop a complication. Serial blood tests are a useful tool for early detection by healthcare professionals to prevent complications.
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